Chapter 96



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(1 John 4:18)  There is no fear in love; but perfect love casteth out fear: because fear hath torment [Gk: punishment]. He that feareth [has torment and therefore] is not made perfect in love [and you do it to yourself].

1.       fear = Gk: (to be put in fear); alarm or fright:--be afraid, + exceedingly, fear, terror. [fear blocks love]

2.       perfect = Gk: complete (in various applications of labor, growth, mental character and moral character, etc.); completeness:--of full age, man, perfect.



(1 Sam 17:1-3)  Now the Philistines [Heb: rolling, migratory] gathered together their armies to battle, and were gathered together at Shochoh, which belongeth to Judah [Heb: celebrated], and pitched between Shochoh [a town] and Azekah [another town], in Ephesdammim. And Saul and the men of Israel [Heb: he will rule as God] were gathered together, and pitched by the valley of Elah [i.e., the valley of the cross; the valley of decision], and set the battle in array [formation] against the Philistines. And the Philistines stood on a mountain [of power of secular religious beliefs] on the one side, and Israel stood on a mountain [of power of Jewish religious beliefs] on the other side: and there was a valley between them [illustrating a great and very definite separation of thought].

1.       Shochoh = Heb: to entwine, i.e. shut in (for formation, protection or restraint):--fence, hedge.

2.       Azekah = Heb: strength of walls, fenced round; dug over, tilled

3.       Ephesdammim = Heb: boundary of blood-drops /// blood + innocent.

4.       Elah = Heb: an oak or other strong tree.



(1 Sam 17:4-11)  And there went out a champion [“a beast” Rev 13:1] out of the camp of the Philistines [the people of the sea, originally from Crete], named Goliath [Heb: exile /// to denude (espec. in a disgraceful sense)], of Gath [Heb: a wine-press (in the sense of treading out the grapes)], whose height was six cubits and a span. And he had an helmet of brass (1) upon his head [indicative of his thoughts, covering his head], and he was armed with a coat of mail (2,3,4) [his body covering]; and the weight of the coat was five thousand shekels of brass [altogether creating a picture of its thickness; one can almost “feel” the massive weight]. And he had greaves [Heb: shin-guards] of brass upon his legs, and a target [Heb: something to strike with, i.e. a dart: lance] of brass between his shoulders. And the staff of his spear was like a weaver's beam [wood: big, thick, powerful: a carnal impersonation of the work of the cross which pierces our heart]; and his spear's head weighed six hundred shekels of iron: and one bearing a shield [the false prophet: Rev 13:11] went before him. And he [Goliath] stood and cried unto the armies of Israel, and said unto them, Why are ye come out to set your battle in array [formation]? am not I a Philistine [i.e., identification with the people of the sea], and ye servants to Saul? choose you a man for you [I CHOOSE JESUS], and let him come down to me. If he be able to fight with me, and to kill me, then will we be your servants: but if I prevail against him, and kill him, then shall ye be our servants, and serve us. And the Philistine said, I defy the armies of Israel this day; give me a man, that we may fight together. When Saul and all Israel heard those words of the Philistine, they were dismayed (5), and greatly afraid (6).

1.       brass = Heb: copper; hence, something made of that metal, i.e. coin, a fetter; fig. base (as compared with gold or silver):--brazen, brass, chain, copper, fetter (of brass), filthiness.

2.       mail = Heb: scales (of a fish); hence a coat of mail (as composed of or covered with jointed plates of metal).

3.       Commentary: Goliath’s “coat” of brass, his covering is an allusion to “leviathan,” a great and dreadful sea creature (monster). (Job 41:1; Psa 74:14, 104:26; Isa 27:1).

4.       Commentary: “six hundred shekels of iron” = Iron is the biblical symbol of judgment; iron is linked to brass: Gen 4:22; Lev 26:19.

a.       (Gen 4:22)  And Zillah, she also bare Tubalcain [a descendant of Cain], an instructor of every artificer in brass and iron: and the sister of Tubalcain was Naamah.

b.       (Lev 26:19)  And I [God] will break the pride of your power; and I will make your heaven as iron, and your earth as brass:

5.       dismayed = Heb: broken down, either (lit.) by violence, or (fig.) by confusion and fear:--abolish, affright, be (make) afraid, amazed, beaten down, discouraged, go down, scared, terrified.

6.       afraid = Heb: to fear; to frighten:--affright, be (make) afraid, dread (-ful), (put in) fear (-ful, -fully, -ing). X see, terrible (act, -ness, thing). [X GREATLY]     


(1 Sam 17:12-15)  Now David [Heb: loving /// beloved] was the son of that Ephrathite [Heb: another name for Bethlehem] of Bethlehemjudah, whose name was Jesse; and he had eight sons: and the man went among men for an old man in the days of Saul. And the three eldest sons of Jesse went and followed Saul to the battle [i.e., they held to the same false belief system as Saul, else they would have “returned” with David]: and the names of his three sons that went to the battle were Eliab the firstborn, and next unto him Abinadab, and the third Shammah. And David was the youngest: and the three eldest followed Saul [typifying ungodly doctrinal disagreements and denominational splits, i.e., they believed in Saul]. But David went and returned from Saul to feed his father's sheep [typifying the “good shepherd” John 10:11,14] at Bethlehem [Heb: house of bread].


(1 Sam 17:16)  And the Philistine [Goliath] drew near [to Saul’s army (church) in apostasy] morning and evening, and presented himself [as a “supposed” sacrificial offering] forty days [biblical symbol of “testing”] [and Saul’s army (church) believed Goliath, i.e., they feared him].

1.       Commentary: “morning and evening” = These appearances occurred most assuredly in the morning at 9:00am, the time of the morning Temple sacrifice, and in the evening at 3:00pm, the time of the evening Temple sacrifice. At those times of sacrifice, Goliath “presented himself” as a mocking sacrificial offering, a completely opposite and insulting imitation and counterfeit of Jesus Christ. Goliath’s aim was first to “distract” the Israelites from their God, and then to kill or carry them away captive.


(1 Sam 17:17,18)  And Jesse said unto David his son, Take now for thy brethren an ephah [Heb: a measure] of this parched corn [Heb: roasted ears of grain], and these ten loaves [of baked bread] [both the word of God: sustenance], and run to the camp to thy brethren; And carry these ten cheeses [aged milk of the word: (Heb: sharp) wisdom] unto the captain of their thousand, and look how thy brethren fare, and take their pledge [“and bring back news of them” NKJV].


(1 Sam 17:19-22)  Now Saul, and they, and all the men of Israel, were in the valley of Elah [the valley of the cross; the valley of decision], fighting with the Philistines. And David rose up early in the morning, and left the sheep with a keeper [illustrating responsibility], and took, and went, as Jesse had commanded him [illustrating obedience]; and he came to the trench, as the host was going forth to the fight, and shouted for the battle. For Israel and the Philistines had put the battle in array [formation], army against army. And David left his carriage in the hand of the keeper of the carriage [again illustrating responsibility], and ran into the army, and came and saluted his brethren [again illustrating obedience].

1.       Commentary: “and left the sheep with a keeper” = Thereby illustrating responsibility. One who will have authority in God’s economy, i.e., who is to be entrusted to exercise God’s power over His people, must be both obedient and responsible, both of which Saul historically was not.


(1 Sam 17:23-26)  And as he talked with them, behold, there came up the champion, the Philistine of Gath, Goliath by name, out of the armies of the Philistines, and spake according to the same words: and David heard them. And all the men of Israel, when they saw the man, fled from him, and were sore afraid. And the men of Israel said, Have ye seen this man that is come up? surely to defy Israel is he come up: and it shall be, that the man who killeth him, the king will enrich him with great riches, and will give him his daughter, and make his father's house free in Israel. And David spake to the men [soldiers] that stood by him, saying, What shall be done to the man that killeth this Philistine, and taketh away the reproach [Heb: disgrace, shame] from Israel? for who is this uncircumcised Philistine, that he should defy the armies of the living God?

1.       Commentary: “And all the men of Israel…” = The men of Israel, following the example set forth by their leader King Saul, sought for themselves (inward seeking - selfishness) only riches, an influential marriage into the king’s family, and freedom from taxes, i.e., power. David sought for God (outward seeking - selflessness) to “taketh away the reproach” done unto God’s people by this unsaved Philistine, and to defend the honor and sovereignty of God, i.e., to serve God.




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