Chapter 63



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(1 Sam 16:11-14)  And Samuel [the High Priest] said unto Jesse, Are here all thy children? And he said, There remaineth yet the youngest [of the eight], and, behold, he keepeth the sheep. And Samuel said unto Jesse, Send and fetch him: for we will not sit down till he come hither. And he sent, and brought him in. Now he was ruddy, and withal of a beautiful countenance, and goodly to look to. And the LORD said, Arise, anoint him: for this is he. Then Samuel took the horn of oil, and anointed him in the midst of his brethren: and the spirit of the LORD came upon David from that day forward. So Samuel rose up, and went to Ramah. But the spirit of the LORD departed from Saul, and an evil spirit from the LORD troubled him.



(1 Sam 17:1-3)  Now the Philistines gathered together their armies to battle, and were gathered together at Shochoh, which belongeth to Judah, and pitched between Shochoh [a town which may be taken to identify an adjacent plain] and Azekah [another town which may be taken to identify an adjacent plain], in Ephesdammim [i.e., the plains of two towns separated by this mountain range]. And Saul and the men of Israel were gathered together, and pitched by the valley of Elah, and set the battle in array [formation] against the Philistines. And the Philistines stood on a mountain [of power of secular religious belief] on the one side, and Israel stood on a mountain [of power of Christian religious belief] on the other side: and there was a valley between them [i.e., illustrating a very definite separation of thought between them].

1.       Philistines = Heb: rolling, migratory /// to roll in dust: roll (wallow) self. [suggesting the picture of  unsaved men as animals, pigs, which is consistent with biblical imagery from the Jewish point-of-view]

2.       Judah = Heb: celebrated /// lit. to hold out the open [vs. closed] hand; phys. to throw (a stone, an arrow) at or away; espec. to revere or worship (with extended hands); intens. to bemoan (by wringing the hands):--cast (out), (make) confess (-ion), praise, shoot, (give) thank (-ful, -s, -sgiving).

3.       Shochoh = Heb: to entwine, i.e. shut in (for formation, protection, and restraint):--fence. (make an) hedge (up). [Job 1:9,10]

4.       Azekah = Heb: tilled /// aid: help. [this was cultivated land, sown with seed]

5.       Ephesdammin = Heb: Heb: boundary of blood-drops.

6.       Elah = Heb: Heb: an oak or other strong tree /// strength; hence anything strong; spec. a chief (politically); also a ram (from his strength); a pilaster (as a strong support); an oak or other strong tree:--mighty (man), lintel, oak, post, ram, tree. [i.e., the valley of Elah is the valley of the cross, the valley of decision]

7.       (Joel 3:14)  Multitudes, multitudes in the valley of decision: for the day of the LORD is near in the valley of decision.


(1 Sam 17:4-7)  And there went out a champion [“a beast” Rev 13:1] out of the camp of the Philistines, named Goliath, of Gath, whose height was six cubits and a span [@ an 18” cubit = 9.3 feet tall, or, @ a 25”cubit = 12.8 feet tall]. And he had an helmet of brass upon his head, and he was armed with a coat of mail [Heb: jointed pieces of overlapping brass like the scales of a fish]; and the weight of the coat was five thousand shekels of brass [weighing 194 ½ lbs]. And he had greaves of brass [Heb: a shin-piece of armor] upon his legs, and a target of brass [Heb: a small shield, or, a javelin] between his shoulders. And the staff of his spear was like a weaver's beam; and his spear's head weighed six hundred shekels of iron [weighing 23 ½ pounds]: and one [the false prophet: Rev 13:11] bearing a shield went before him.

1.       Goliath = Heb: exile /// to denude (espec. in a disgraceful sense); by impl. to exile (captives being usually stripped); fig. to reveal:-- + advertise, betray, bring, (carry, lead, go) captive (into captivity), depart, disclose, discover, exile, be gone, open, X plainly, publish, remove, reveal, X shamelessly, shew, X surely, tell, uncover.

2.       Gath = Heb: (in the sense of treading out grapes); a wine-press (or vat for holding the grapes in pressing them):--(wine-) press.

3.      brass = Heb: copper; hence, something made of that metal, i.e. coin, a fetter; fig. base (as compared with gold or silver):--brasen, brass, chain, copper, fetter (of brass), filthiness, steel /// copper:--brass, steel /// (perh. in the sense of ringing, i.e. bell-metal; or from the red color of the throat of a serpent when hissing); coppery, i.e. (fig.) hard:--of brass /// 5172. to hiss, i.e. whisper a (magic) spell; gen. to prognosticate:-- X certainly, divine, enchanter, (use) X enchantment, learn by experience, X indeed, diligently observe. [symbolic of sin]

a.       (Gen 3:1)  Now the serpent [Heb: 5172] was more subtle [Heb: cunning (usually in a bad sense):--crafty, prudent] than any beast of the field which the LORD God had made. And he said unto the woman, Yea, hath God said, Ye shall not eat of every tree of the garden?

(1 Sam 17:8-10)  And he [Goliath] stood and cried unto the armies of Israel, and said unto them, Why are ye come out to set your battle in array? am not I a Philistine, and ye servants to Saul? choose you a man for you, and let him come down to me. If he be able to fight with me, and to kill me, then will we be your servants: but if I prevail against him, and kill him, then shall ye be our servants, and serve us. And the Philistine said, I defy the armies of Israel this day; give me a man, that we may fight together.

(1 Sam 17:11)  When Saul and all Israel heard those words of the Philistine, they were dismayed, and greatly afraid.

1.       dismayed = Heb: to prostrate; hence to break down, either (lit.) by violence, or (fig.) by confusion and fear:--abolish, affright, be (make) afraid, amaze, beat down, discourage, (cause to) dismay, go down, scare, terrify.

2.       afraid = Heb: to fear; to frighten:--affright, be (make) afraid, dreadful, fearful, X see, terrible (act, -ness, thing). [X “greatly”]


(1 Sam 17:12-15)  Now David [Heb: loving: beloved] was the son of that Ephrathite [Heb: fruitfulness (and another name for Bethlehem)] of Bethlehemjudah, whose name was Jesse [Heb: extant]; and he had eight sons: and the man went among men for an old man in the days of Saul. And the three eldest sons of Jesse went and followed Saul to the battle: and the names of his three sons that went to the battle were Eliab the firstborn, and next unto him Abinadab, and the third Shammah. And David was the youngest: and the three eldest followed Saul. But David went and returned from Saul to feed his father's sheep at Bethlehem [Heb: house of bread].


(1 Sam 17:16)  And the Philistine drew near morning [probably 9am] and evening [probably 3pm], and presented himself [offered himself as the substitute sacrifice] forty days.

1.       (Deu 8:1,2)  All the commandments which I command thee this day shall ye observe to do, that ye may live, and multiply, and go in and possess the land which the LORD sware unto your fathers. And thou shalt remember all the way which the LORD thy God led thee these forty years in the wilderness, to humble thee, and to prove [Heb: test] thee [this is also an application to “proving” a sword by placing it alternatively in flame, hammer it, then in water, and repeating the procedure often, for sharpness], to know what was in thine heart, whether thou wouldest keep his commandments, or no.

2.       (Jer 23:29)  Is not my word like as a fire? saith the LORD; and like a hammer that breaketh the rock in pieces?


(1 Sam 17:17,18)  And Jesse [Father God] said unto David [Jesus Christ] his son, Take now for thy brethren an ephah [Heb: a measure] of this parched corn [Heb: roasted ears of grain], and these ten loaves [of bread], and run to the camp to thy brethren; And carry these ten cheeses [Heb: incise, to cut into; hence a threshing-sledge (with sharp teeth)] unto the captain of their thousand, and look how thy brethren fare, and take their pledge.

(1 Sam 17:19)  Now Saul, and they, and all the men of Israel, were in the valley of Elah [the cross], fighting with the Philistines.


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